THE COMPREHENSIVE AND CUMULATIVE COSTS OF CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION.……………………………………………………………………………………..1 THE ORIGINS OF OUR POST WORLD WAR ll ERA OF CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES…2 SPECIFIC CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES IN USE IN OCEAN CITY…….……………………2 HOW THESE CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AFFECT THEIR TARGETS……………………..3 NEONICOTINOIDS IN NURSERY STOCK PLANTS / TOXICITY TO ECOSYSTEMS IN OC..3 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES COMPANIES SUBMIT THEIR OWN SOURCES’ RESEARCH WITH APPLICATIONS FOR EPA PERMITS……………………………………….3. PESTICIDES COMPANIES’ MATERIALS SAFETY DATA SHEETS INFO VERSUS INDEPENDENTLY PUBLISHED RESEARCH ON CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES………….4 GROWING CONCERNS ABOUT UNRESEARCHED COMBINATIONS OF PESTICIDES .….4 COMBINATIONS OF CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES APPLIED IN OCEAN CITY……………4 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AND HUMAN HEALTH CONCERNS………………………….5 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH……………………………………5 BREATHING OF CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES VAPORS AND DRIFT, OUR NO-SMOKE BAN, AND OUR CLEAN AIR RIGHTS….…………………………………………….…………….5 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES RELEASE OF BY-PRODUCTS INTO OUR ENVIRONMENTS……………………………………………………………………………………….6 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AND GLOBAL WARMING / CLIMATE CHANGE…………….6 COMMERCIAL PESTICIDES APPLICATORS’ REUSE OF PESTICIDES WASTEWATER……6 EPISODES OF FLOODING AND PESTICIDES RUNOFF ONTO ADJACENT PROPERTIES.6 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION………….……….6 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES RUNOFF AND CONTAMINATION OF OUR WATERS AND WETLANDS ECOSYSTEMS…………………………………………………………………..7 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES’ TOXICITY TO LAND ECOSYSTEMS SPECIES …………7. EXAMPLES OF ECOSYSTEMS INTERRUPTED BY CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES………7 GREATER AWARENESS EMPOWERS US TO MAKE BETTER CHOICES……………………7 NATURAL ALTERNATIVES TO CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES………………………………..8 COMPREHENSIVE BENEFITS OF CHOOSING SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPING……………..8 TO OUR LOCAL LANDSCAPERS; HEALTH HAZARDS REDUCTIONS, AND ISLAND STEWARDSHIP……………………………………………..….……………………………………….8. GOING SUSTAINABLE; NEW JERSEY MUNICIPALITIES’ EFFORTS………………………….9. EXISTING PESTICIDES REGULATIONS IN OTHER STATES AND MUNICIPALITIES………..9. EXAMPLES OF OTHER MUNICIPALITIES’ CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES LEGISLATION…………………………………………………………………………………………… CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES INFORMATION SHEETS, FOR REFERENCE…. pages 11- DITHIOPYR; QUALI-PRO WITH CYCLOHEXANONE, PRE-EMERGENT HERBICIDE………..11 DITHIOPYR; LESCO DIMENSION, PRE-EMERGENT HERBICIDE..…………………………….12 SULFENTRAZONE WITH TOLUENE; DISMISS, FMC CORP., PRE- & POST-EMERGENT.. HERBICIDE………………………………………………………………………………………………13 2,4-D, MECOPROP-P, DICAMBA, in LESCO THREE-WAY SELECTIVE HERBICIDE…14 & 15 GLYPHOSATE, ROUNDUP, HERBICIDE WITH TRADE SECRET SURFACTANT……… 16 & 17 FLUROXYPYR, NAPHTHA, N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE: DOW VISTA XRT SPECIALTY, HIGH-LOAD FORMULA; HERBICIDES, SOLVENT, SURFACTANT……….18 & 19 INTRODUCTION

This paper discusses the comprehensive, cumulative costs and effects of chemical lawn pesticides on our island residents,ecosystems,and watershed/island environment; which drains our rain/flood waters/pesticides to our ocean/bay.Hundreds of thousands of City taxpayer dollars have been spent on high-maintenance-costs; sod, irrigation systems,water bills,pesticides,etc. Ocean City landowners,local landscapers,and chemical pesticides companies douse unknown quantities of chemical lawn pesticides on private mono-plant sod lawns.There are incalculable costs associated with the effects of these chemical pesticides interrupting balances of regional ecosystems,both teratological (land);including our pollinators,and marine ecosystems,affecting our environment, and our human populations.Our children/grandchildren,and pets are closer to these pesticides and more susceptible. These comprehensive costs cannot be measured in taxpayer, or private dollars, but instead are measured by cumulative exposures over time, and individual susceptibility. As our children/ grandchildren learn about our earth’s varied ecosystems, that 1/3 of our food is from pollinators being destroyed by pesticides/habitat loss, and the importance of protecting our environment,-their future; so must we learn to redirect. We are set apart as an island, but our chemical pesticides affect our region. Comprehensively,sustainable redirection,from our current unsustainable,pesticides landscaping model,toward barrier island,appropriate plantings,benefits our municipality in beginning to save hundreds of thousands of taxpayer dollars,while offering a healthier,ecologically diverse island for our children/grandchildren’s lives and futures. A table of contents serves as an outline of our many island issues resulting from our usage of chemical lawn pesticides. A brief background of the origins of chemical lawn pesticides is followed by the identifications of specific pesticides in use in Ocean City. Several pages discuss the many ways that pesticides use here,affect our island; including consequences of exposures. In closing, information/solutions are offered of other municipalities’ aims/ directions toward sustainability,and reducing/eliminating chemical lawn pesticides from their environments. An appendix of individual chemical lawn pesticides information sheets is included at the back for reference. 1 THE ORIGINS OF OUR POST WORLD WAR II ERA OF CHEMICAL PESTICIDES Our post World War II era of chemical pesticides is rooted in the 1940’s chemical corporations’ expansion of their productions for commercial sales of products;such as 2,4-D, a chlorophenoxy herbicide,which killed broad-leafed plants by hormonal interruption. Lawn pesticides advertising campaigns aimed to convince consumers to want mono-plant grass lawns,and the herbicides to kill dandelions, clover,and native herbs/plants in their lawns. Even though our Earth’s vegetation naturally grows in plant diversity, supportive of ecosystems, and life; these chemical companies’ advertising campaigns began the Orwellian-like elimination of our knowledge of the benefits of our native plants. We forgot that ancestors; North American, European, Middle Eastern(10th century Arabic), South African, etc, used dandelions for their nutritional and many health benefits,like sugar balances associated with diabetes.Native clovers add nitrogen /nutrients to our soils,and feed our pollinators, which help provide 1/3 of our food. The 1940’s vulnerable consumers were part of the pesticides experiment; then came the DDT alarm. Rachel Carson reported in her book,Silent Spring in 1962,the ecological, environmental, and human harm occurring from the rampant use of DDT, which continued to be sold and used until banned in the 1970’s, after decades of long lasting harm.Residues still persist in plants and animal tissues. 1940’s 2,4-D was one of the main components of Agent Orange, the chemical warfare defoliant used in Vietnam. Still in wide agricultural / lawn use, 2,4-D possesses many potential problems, such as carcinogenic Dioxin contamination occurring during its manufacturing process. An EPA Archived Document report found Dioxin in one fourth of the 2,4-D samples tested. In 2014, Pesticides Action Network (PAN) UK, Europe, also reported Dioxin contamination in 2,4-D samples tested. Banned in Sweden, Denmark and Norway, 2,4-D continues to be manufactured without Dioxin monitoring, and is in common use in Ocean City. Plants are developing resistance to pesticides, such as Glyphosate, a widely-used systemic (absorbed by foliage & roots)herbicide, prompting applications of higher doses of pesticides,and combinations. Ancient Aztec,high-protein grain, amaranth, negatively dubbed pigweed due to its hardy sustainability,evolves resistance to Glyphosate in as little as four years. Amaranth adapts to varied climates, and could be an economical/sustainable solution to feeding hungry countries. Yet the EPA,to combat plant resistance,approved 2,4-D (2014), & Dicamba,2018,another 1940’s wide-use chlorophenoxy herbicide, also in Ocean City; each herbicide to be used in conjunction with Glyphosate.Thousands of farm & health-related Glyphosate lawsuits,such as non Hodgkin Lymphoma,are lining up in our country’s courts; and Glyphosate is in wide use in Ocean City. SPECIFIC CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES IN USE IN OCEAN CITY Ocean City’s common mono-plant sod/irrigation landscaping is doused with many chemical lawn pesticides. The following list of active ingredients in chemical lawn pesticides, produced under many brands, are included in some of the pesticides being applied here in Ocean City. Pre-emergent: *Dithiopyr, Pre-& Post-Emergent: *Sulfentrazone with Toluene, Post-emergents: *2,4-D, *Mecoprop-p, *Dicamba, *Glyphosate,with Methyl Hexanoate, *Fluroxypyr, * Naphtha, *N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, *Quinclorac. Fungicide: * Propiconazole with *Naphthalene Neonicotinoid: *Imidacloprid Insecticide: *Bifenthrin, . See CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES INFORMATION SHEETS, pages 11- , for more info. . 2 HOW THESE CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AFFECT THEIR TARGETS Pre-emergent herbicides, such as Dithiopyr,applied in early spring, eliminate the germinating (sprouting) plant’s ability to develop rootlings for growth by inhibiting cell division in broad-leafed plants.Post-emergent herbicides;2,4-D, Dicamba, Mecoprop-p,etc.terminate,by hormonal action, a broad-leafed plant’s ability to survive by causing its cells to grow out of control,a bit like human malignancies.Glyphosate herbicide depletes plant nutrients.Fungicides are potentially prompted by irrigation issues, or by pesticides-initiated weakening of plant disease resistances. Fungicide, Propiconazole with Naphthalene,kills microbes affecting the plant but also kills the beneficial soil microbes that assist in the plant’s proper intake of nutrients, which further weakens the plant’s disease resistance. A systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, such as Imidacloprid, is toxic to all insects, including beneficial pollinators; and birds, bats, and small mammals. Neonicotinoids block acetylcholine receptors, between nerve and muscle cells; thereby preventing nerve cell transmission. For example; insects, birds, and bats lose their abilities to navigate and fly. NEONICOTINOIDS IN NURSERY STOCK PLANTS’ / TOXICITY TO ECOSYSTEMS Many common Ocean City sodded lawns have plantings of toxic neonicotinoids-imbibed nursery stock plants. Plant vendors do not advertise the presence of systemic neonicotinoids pesticides within many of their stock plants. Neonicotinoids are also broadcast into environments, such as Ocean City’s Imidacloprid application onto Veteran’s Park, in early July, 2018. Sonia Shah, Yale Environment 360, (2010) states, “Applied to the soil or doused on seeds, neonicotinoid insecticides incorporate themselves into the plant’s tissues, turning the plant itself into a tiny poison factory emitting toxin from its roots, leaves, stems, pollen, and nectar.” . Of particular concern is the guttation fluid of plants that pollinators like insects, birds, and bats drink. Vincenzo Girolami, entomologist at the University of Padua, Italy writes, “Guttation is a natural plant phenomenon causing the excretion of xylem fluid at leaf margins [the plant’s xylem system transports water/minerals from roots into the plant]…The concentration of neonicotinoids in guttation drops can be near those of active ingredients commonly applied in field sprays for pest control,or even higher. When bees consume guttation drops, collected from the plants [containing high concentrations of neonicotinoids]…they encounter death within a few minutes.” CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES COMPANIES SUBMIT THEIR OWN SOURCES’ RESEARCH WITH APPLICATIONS FOR EPA PERMITS The chemical lawn pesticides corporations often give grant monies to university scientists who perform research on lab stock animals, and dogs, by dermal, ingestion, etc.exposures to the individual chemical pesticides products being prepared for marketing. Consequential eye illnesses/ blindnesses, heart/ respiratory complications/ failures, skin diseases/ malignant tissue growths, neurological systems damages/motor control loss, digestive system damages, reproductive disorders/abnormalities;and deaths,are all expended. The lab reports are compiled for the chemical pesticides companies to submit with their applications to the Environmental Protection Agency for their products’ permits.The EPA, which does not conduct its own research on these pesticides, bases its permitting decisions on the research information provided by the chemical pesticides corporations’ sources. No independent research is conducted for these pesticides applications’ approvals. Independent researchers have noted that standard lab research uses certain species of lab animals,which may not adequately represent pesticides’ comprehensive field effects on actual ecosystems’ populations of integral species. 3 PESTICIDES COMPANIES’ MATERIALS SAFETY DATA SHEETS INFORMATION VERSUS INDEPENDENTLY PUBLISHED RESEARCH ON CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES The Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are product info packets provided by the chemical companies for individual pesticides products. Vague, incomplete, and inconsistent information (subsequent years issues), is listed within these MSDS sheets; including Trade Secrets ingredients,which present unknown affects variables.Product liability disclaimers conclude every packet’s info. Independent researchers, such as the World Health Organization’s, often provide more complete, conclusive, and cautionary information on disclosed chemical pesticides. GROWING CONCERNS ABOUT UNRESEARCHED COMBINATIONS OF PESTICIDES Chemical pesticides are studied individually for their effects.Combinations are difficult to study due to their quantities of unknown variables involved in their combined effects,on human/ animal populations, our ecology, and our environment. Yet during applications of pesticides on private lawns; combinations of pesticides are often used. Kristi Pullen, scientist for the Health Program of the Natural Resources Defense Council, 2016, states, “These chemicals by themselves can be problematic,but when we start combining them with other toxic chemicals, we’re just creating a new problem in order to solve another problem.” COMBINATIONS OF CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES APPLIED IN OCEAN CITY An example of combinations of chemical lawn pesticides applied in Ocean City, is a residential property that received ten different contracted pesticides during a five-month period from April – August, 2018. Every month, except April, had between three and five pesticides applied. More undisclosed products were applied between September and October. The chemical pesticides applications that were disclosed are as follows. ● April, Dithiopyr………………………………………Pre-emergent Herbicide. ● May, 2,4-D , Mecoprop-p, Dicamba……..Post-emergent Herbicides (Three) ● May, Propiconazole with Naphthalene…………Fungicide and Surfactant. ● May, Bifenthrin with Propylene Glycol……….. Lawn Insecticide ● June, 2,4-D , Mecoprop-p, Dicamba……..Post-emergent Herbicides (Three) ● July, Quinclorac………………………………….. Post-emergent Herbicide ● July, Sulfentrazone with Toluene………………Pre & Post-Emergent Herbicide ● July, Fluroxypyr , Naphtha……………………….Specialty, High-Load Formula N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Herbicides, Harmful to trees ● August, Quinclorac……………………………………Post-emergent Herbicide ● August, Sulfentrazone with Toluene………………Pre & Post-Emergent Herbicide ● August, Fluroxypyr , Naphtha…………………….Specialty, High-Load Formula, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Herbicides, Harmful to trees Specialty,High-Load Formulas of Fluroxypyr,Naphtha, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone are often used for clearing rangelands of trees/brush,and swaths of land beneath high-voltage wires.Ref:pg18-19. This High-Load combo has groundwater contamination/drift vapors runoff/Aquatic Toxicity/ Carcinogenic warnings, being applied in a densely developed neighborhood. Exposures also include potential Dioxin-like compounds released, resulting from combining chlorophenoxy herbicides; such as 2,4-D, Dicamba, and Mecoprop-p with fungicides, such as Propiconazole. *The resident and nonresident family members from this property are noticeably absent during each of the commercial pesticides applications, and for several subsequent days and nights. 4 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AND HUMAN HEALTH CONCERNS The human health effects listed in the individual CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES INFO SHEETS, pages 11- , itemize reasons for concern about the above pesticides, and combinations, being sprayed in dense Ocean City neighborhoods. Kristi Pullen, NRDC, further states, “When you combine increased use [of chemical pesticides] with the potential for increased developmental, cancer, and other health impacts, you create a perfect storm of hazard and exposure coming together.” The degree of vulnerability to chemical pesticides’ detrimental effects is an unknown variable in each individual’s exposures and susceptibility. Children, have the potential of greater susceptibility being of lighter body weights, and greater exposures being closer to the chemical pesticides on the ground. We advertise our island as a family resort. Some of these pesticides are identified as known carcinogens, while others are probable carcinogens. The systems and organs affected by these pesticides, include; *endocrine system disruption, *thyroid disorders, *neurological and central nervous systems, *decreased immune system functioning, *lymph systems, *kidneys, *adrenals, *bladder, *urinary tract, *pancreas, *liver, *blood, *heart, *lungs, *gastrointestinal tracts Reproductive and developmental disorders include: *fertility complications, *birth defects, *brain development complications, *skeletal abnormalities due to delayed ossification, (delayed bone growth), CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH During the 11 Oct, 2018 Ocean City Council meeting, our mayor read a proclamation of recognition of Children’s Environmental Health Day, 12 Oct, 2018. The Children’s Environmental Health Network features monthly themes on children’s health and the World Health Organization (WHO), in advocacy for children, has a 10 Facts Sheet on Children’s Environmental Health. Fact # 9 is about pesticides exposures and children’s cancers. Of particular concern are pesticides’ endocrine disruptor effects on in-vitro development and childhood brain development and growth. The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC) in 2015 stated that exposure to Chlorophenoxy herbicides, [such as 2,4-D, Dicamba, and Mecoprop-p], has been shown to “cause oxidative stress and suppressed immune system responses, which are known to support the development of cancer” Remember the property receiving all three of these simultaneously. BREATHING OF CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES VAPORS AND DRIFT, OUR NO-SMOKE BAN, AND OUR CLEAN AIR RIGHTS A property owner’s rights stop at his property line, but our island’s dense development and our conditions of wind expose non-target properties immediately, to the drift and vapors during adjacent pesticides applications, and subsequent hours, or days. All of the above chemical lawn pesticides have warnings of avoidance of drift onto non-target areas, and breathing of vapors. Again, the (page 3) property’s residents are noticeably absent during and after each of their pesticides applications, but the other neighborhood residents are exposed to all of the pesticides. 5 Our No Smoke Ban on our boardwalk and beaches provides healthier air quality in those areas. Since Dioxin is one of the contaminants in cigarette smoke, this ban is a prudent protection of boardwalkers’ and beachgoers’ Clean Air rights. Due to the fact that all citizens have the right to clean air through our federal Clean Air Act, we in our densely developed neighborhoods have the right to Clean Air as well. We have the right to be free of potential Dioxin contamination from chlorophenoxy pesticides, and all of the other harmful effects from exposure to chemical lawn pesticides. Clean Air Rights are for all of our island residents and visitors, on our boardwalk and beaches, and in our neighborhoods. CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES RELEASE OF BY-PRODUCTS INTO OUR ENVIRONMENTS In addition to the Clean Air Rights concerning exposures to drift and vapors mentioned above, is the issue of chemical lawn pesticides breakdown in summer heat and humidity, emitting by-products into the atmosphere; some toxic such as formaldehyde or chlorine products, others, of global concern, such as carbon dioxide. CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AND GLOBAL WARMING / CLIMATE CHANGE Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of all of the above listed pesticides. The scientific community has long known about carbon dioxide’s heat trapping properties in the atmosphere, since Joseph Fourier’s 1820’s experiment based on heat conduction. Although plants absorb carbon dioxide, the minimal benefit of shallow-rooted grass plants’ is negated by dumping the carbon dioxide- emitting chemical lawn pesticides on the grass. Then there is the issue of commercial pesticides applicators’ reuse of pesticides wastewater. COMMERCIAL PESTICIDES APPLICATORS’ REUSE OF PESTICIDES WASTEWATER The commercial chemical lawn pesticides contractors finish a day’s run of pesticides dousing, but they are prohibited from the disposing of any leftover wastewater; including truck / tank wash water, into sewage systems. All pesticides wastewater is collected into holding wells, and then used to mix into the next batches of pesticides. The pesticides customers receive the disposed pesticides wastewater deposited on their lawns. And then comes the rain. EPISODES OF FLOODING AND PESTICIDES RUNOFF ONTO ADJACENT PROPERTIES During episodes of flooding, by rain, and/or high tides, flood waters spread chemical lawn pesticides from one property, across the property lines to adjacent properties. Landowners, and families, have the rights to choose not to use chemical lawn pesticides on their lands, but are unable, during episodes of flooding, to protect their properties from floodwater pesticides contamination. All of these pesticides have warnings to avoid runoff. The half-lives (maintaining their chemical identities) of these pesticides varies from weeks to over a year or much more. CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION Groundwater(aquifer) contamination is a problem with all of the above pesticides, especially on our island’s permeable, sandy soils. Think about the height of our water table in relation to how quickly your child/grandchild reaches water during hole digging at the beach. While you are thinking about the children, playing on the beach, picture those outfall storm drainage pipes dripping water from the storm sewers. Remember the above warnings to avoid pesticides runoff. 6 CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES RUNOFF AND CONTAMINATION OF OUR WATERS AND WETLANDS ECOSYSTEMS Pesticides collected by our rain or flood waters drain out to our ocean (beaches), bay, and wetlands. All of the above listed pesticides are toxic to aquatic life; some highly toxic with long-lasting effects; to fish, aquatic invertebrates, such as oysters, clams, and salt marsh snails, and aquatic plants. The loss of species within ecosystems interrupts the balances of the ecosystems, for example; our bay wetlands diamondback terrapin feeds on salt marsh snails. CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES TOXICITY TO LAND ECOSYSTEMS SPECIES Some of these pesticides are highly toxic to bees, while others are moderately so; but even moderately toxic pesticides interfere with bees’ ability to navigate,and consequently eliminate entire bee populations.The foraging range of bees is wide enough for mainland bee populations to be imperiled by the pollinator-toxic chemical lawn pesticides on our island.Insects are integral in ecosystems;in plant pollination/ propagation/ diversity,in soil health,and food for other species. Already mentioned are pesticides’ suppression of immune system functions.During pesticides- use months/March-November,our resident wildlife populations receive daily exposures to our islands’ many chemical lawn pesticides,eg.our fox populations.By their regular exposures,our island’s wild animals are at a much greater risk of being less able to fight illnesses,which affects the quality and length of their lives.Wildlife ecosystems balances are interrupted with species decline or loss.Also of note is the fact that chemical lawn pesticides research on dogs has proven EXAMPLES OF ECOSYSTEMS INTERRUPTED BY CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES Chemical lawn pesticides are deadly to our bees and other pollinators, while destroying pollinator-friendly plant diversity. Glyphosate herbicide info lists milkweed as a target plant,which is the monarch butterfly caterpillar’s only food, and seaside goldenrod, the migrating adult monarch’s autumn sustenance. Please note that seaside goldenrod is not ragweed. Planting more sustainable seaside goldenrod and milkweed on our private and public lands/ dunes would contribute our part to efforts across our country to restore monarch butterfly foods needed along their migration routes from northern parts of our continent down to central Mexico/ north again in the spring. Our island is within the monarch butterfly Atlantic Coastal migration route. *Our children/ grandchildren learn about the importance of pollinating insects/ animals and ecosystems balances,but predominantly,what they see in their Ocean City neighborhoods are monoplant lawns doused with chemical lawn pesticides w/ pesticides applications warning flags. GREATER AWARENESS EMPOWERS US TO MAKE BETTER CHOICES With education about the above-listed pesticides, we are empowered to make more informed choices. Although the chemical lawn pesticides are cheap; their potential comprehensive adverse human, ecological, and environmental effects possess unknown cumulative, added costs, exacerbated by unresearched combinations of pesticides. In essence, the pesticides user is part of the on-going life experiment which will prove which pesticides, and which combinations of pesticides, have caused enough comprehensive harm, to human life, our ecology, and environment, to ultimately be banned. Remember DDT. Natural alternatives to chemical herbicides are becoming more available,but keep in mind that your native, sustainable broad-leafed plants are vulnerable to the alternatives’ herbicide action. 7 NATURAL ALTERNATIVES TO CHEMICAL LAWN PESTICIDES Natural alternative pesticides cost a bit more, but do not cause harm to humans, or pollute our environment. These products are comprehensively, the more affordable “right” choices for sod landowners wanting herbicides’ effects. An alternative pre-emergent (early spring) choice is corn gluten meal (gluten-free), which develops increasing effectiveness with subsequent years’ use, and is available in the US. A later spring / summer post-emergent choice is phoma macrostoma, from Canadian sources. Growing demand for alternative products is prompting more products. COMPREHENSIVE BENEFITS OF CHOOSING SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPING Sustainable landscaping,using no chemical lawn pesticides and no irrigation, avoids pesticides contamination of groundwater / pesticides runoff into our marine waters.We are also contributing to some re-establishment of island ecosystems balances, and to regional water conservation. Ocean City uses approximately 2.5 million gallons of water per day, on a yearly average. Our water is drawn from the 800 foot sands aquifer, which is deeper than, but connected to the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer beneath the Pinelands Preserve, and our southern NJ. region. High volume withdrawal from our aquifer has created vacuums, enabling saline intrusion to occur within some regions of southern NJ. Cape May City has a desalination water plant. Use of hardy/no-irrigation, no-pesticides sustainable plants will reduce our irrigation demands, rate of water withdrawal from our aquifer, and some potential saline intrusion. Additionally, sustainable landscaping, within our densely developed neighborhoods, will enable our island populations to breathe Clean Air ocean breezes across lands free of chemical lawn pesticides’ air polluting vapors and drift;and release of by-products.Thinking globally,less carbon dioxide emitting chemical lawn pesticides means a bit less contribution to global warming.. Of course,deeper rooted, native/sustainable trees and plants contribute more global benefit by greater carbon dioxide absorption, and carbon retention within the soil, compared to a much smaller absorption capability of grass plants. Yes, we are one small island, but comprehensively there is our global need to think about our cumulative contribution. OUR LOCAL LANDSCAPERS: HEALTH HAZARDS REDUCTIONS / ISLAND STEWARDSHIP To our local landscapers; knowledge empowers you to make better occupational choices. Stepping away from the many known health hazards, and the emerging concerns from the un-researched effects of exposure to combinations of pesticides; takes you out of the chemical pesticides experiment. Your landscaping services will always be needed here by year round residents, and second home owners. Teach your customers the truth about the chemical pesticides. Help them make wiser choices for their properties, whether they live here or not; and to understand that the landscaping choices they are making influence the people here, the ecology, the environment, and more broadly, our Earth. You, in your unique positions of landscapers of the land, can promote good stewardship practices on our island. Do not feel occupationally threatened by comprehensively healthier redirection. Our country’s development has redirected us all along the way. Greater awareness of how our actions affect our lives and our environment, places us on an urgent threshold for changes of attitudes and choices. Ultimately the changes that you make, and initiate will improve your chances for longer, healthier lives, and a healthier environment in which for you and your families to live. 8 GOING SUSTAINABLE; NEW JERSEY MUNICIPALITIES’ EFFORTS The Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions (ANJEC) over the last few years, has published articles about New Jersey municipalities’ efforts in “Going Green” with sustainable landscaping; becoming more aware of the pollution problems of lawn pesticides; and practicing water conservation. Municipalities such as; EXISTING PESTICIDES REGULATIONS IN OTHER STATES’ MUNICIPALITIES The municipality of Bethesda, Maryland, in the last few years passed legislation against pesticides use in their watershed region. Coastal resort, Fort Lauderdale, Florida also has legislation

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